Dialogue - Indonesian

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Vocabulary

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peluncuran launch
pertanyaan question
baik well
presentasi presentation
juga too, also
siapkan to prepare
bekerja keras to work hard
sejak since

Lesson Notes

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Grammar

The Focus of this Lesson is Using The Conjunction sejak meaning "since"
Untungnya tim kita telah mempersiapkan proyek ini dengan baik sejak peluncuran perdananya.

"Luckily our team has prepared this project very well since its first launch."


Conjunctions are used to connect words, phrases, clauses, and sentences. In Indonesian, there are a lot of conjunctions. Sejak is one of many subordinate conjunctions (conjunctions connecting two or more clauses).

For example:

  1. Sejak kecelakaan itu, dia tidak pernah mengendarai mobil lagi.
    "Since the accident, he has never driven a car again."

Here the word sejak is used to refer to the condition that takes place first, which is an accident. Later on, the consequence after the condition will be revealed in the next clause, which is "he has never driven a car again."

Based on its function, sejak is the conjunction used to mark the time between two events, or actions between two clauses in a compound sentence or between two sentences in a paragraph. We often find this conjunction to connect the states since at the time of the incident, event, or action in the main clause that explains the time started when the incident, event, or action in a subordinate clause.

Sometimes in a poetic expression sejak is replaced by the word semenjak which also has the same meaning.

For example:

  1. Semenjak guru baru itu datang, anak-anak menjadi lebih semangat belajar.
    "Since the new teacher came, the children have been more excited to study."

In the sentence above, the word semenjak is used to express the change of condition, and then after the new teacher has come, the new situation occurs (the children get more excited to study).

Sejak in interrogative form usually comes with kapan or in free translation can be translated as since when. The formula is sejak + kapan meaning since when.

For example:

  1. Sejak kapan Aceh telah dilengkapi sistem peringatan bahaya tsunami?
    "Since when has Aceh been equipped with the tsunami warning system?"

For example:

  1. Sejak tsunami 2004 lalu, Aceh telah mengadopsi sistem peringatan bahaya tsunami.
    "Since the 2004 tsunami, Aceh has had the tsunami warning system."

The most common pattern in using conjunction sejak or "since" is: Sejak + a period of time.

For example: sejak Desember, sejak tahun 2008, sejak pagi - "since December," "since 2008," "since morning"

For example:

  1. Hujan turun sejak pagi ini.
    "Rain has been falling since this morning."
  2. Kereta itu mulai beroperasi sejak tahun 2008
    "The train has been in operation since 2008."
  3. Sejak tsunami 2004 lalu, Aceh telah mengadopsi sistem peringatan bahaya tsunami.
    "Since the 2004 tsunami, Aceh has had the tsunami warning system."

Cultural Insights

Did you Know?


Salat is praying in the faith of Islam, and the people who believe in Islam are called Muslim. With around 207 million people who believe in Islam—this is 87% of the population—Indonesia has the largest Muslim population in the world. Muslims believe that every day, they have to conduct prayer or salat five times a day. The times are determined by the movement of the sun. The five times are: near dawn, noon, afternoon, after sunset, and nightfall. Almost all institutions in Indonesia such as schools, universities and workplaces have designated places where Muslims can do the salat activities. Masjid is the word for mosque in Indonesian. Besides Masjid, a small room to conduct salat is usually called musala (comes from Arabic: "musholla"). As Christians hold Sunday as a special day for praying in Church, Muslims consider Friday as the special day for praying in Masjid.

Lesson Transcript

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INTRODUCTION
Damon: Hi everyone, I’m Damon! Welcome to IndonesianPod101.com. This is Beginner Season 1, Lesson 1 - Congratulations on a Good Job in Indonesia!
Fira: Hello! I’m Fira. Welcome to our first lesson.
Damon: In this lesson, you’ll learn how to show appreciation, and how to use the conjunction “since”.
Fira: We’ll be listening to an after-meeting conversation.
Damon: The conversation is at the office, and is between Andi and his supervisor, Mr. Joko. Since it’s a work situation, they’ll be using formal Indonesian.
DIALOGUE
PAK JOKO:
Presentasi yang bagus, Andi.
ANDI:
Terima kasih Pak Joko. Semoga kita bisa memenangkan proyek ini.
PAK JOKO:
Delegasi dari Singapura sangat antusias mendengarkan presentasimu.
ANDI:
Iya, dan mereka banyak memberikan pertanyaan!
PAK JOKO:
Kamu juga telah menjawab pertanyaan mereka dengan baik.
ANDI:
Untungnya tim kita telah mempersiapkan proyek ini dengan baik sejak peluncuran perdananya.
PAK JOKO:
Kamu telah bekerja keras, semoga kita akan mendengar kabar baik secepatnya.
ANDI:
Iya Pak, saya juga bersiap-siap untuk salat.
Damon: Now, let's hear it with the English translation.
PAK JOKO:
Presentasi yang bagus, Andi.
DAMON:
Really great presentation, Andi.
ANDI:
Terima kasih Pak Joko. Semoga kita bisa memenangkan proyek ini.
DAMON:
Thank you Mr. Joko. I hope we can win this project.
PAK JOKO:
Delegasi dari Singapura sangat antusias mendengarkan presentasimu.
DAMON:
The delegation from Singapore was very enthusiastic to hear your presentation.
ANDI:
Iya, dan mereka banyak memberikan pertanyaan!
DAMON:
Yes, and they asked a lot of questions!
PAK JOKO:
Kamu juga telah menjawab pertanyaan mereka dengan baik.
DAMON:
You also answered their questions very well.
ANDI:
Untungnya tim kita telah mempersiapkan proyek ini dengan baik sejak peluncuran perdananya.
DAMON:
Luckily our team has prepared this project very well since its first launch.
PAK JOKO:
Kamu telah bekerja keras, semoga kita akan mendengar kabar baik secepatnya.
DAMON:
You have worked hard, hopefully we will hear the good news soon.
ANDI:
Iya Pak, saya juga bersiap-siap untuk salat.
DAMON:
Yes Sir, I also have to prepare for my salat prayer.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Damon: So Andi is a muslim, and during a break at work, he prepares for his salat prayer. Fira, can you tell us about religion in Indonesia?
Fira: Well, Indonesia has the largest population of muslims in the world. There are around 207 million muslims, according to the 2010 census. However, the country itself is not a muslim country.
Damon: That’s interesting. I mean, the muslim population makes up 87% of the entire country! I’ve heard that Muslims have a particular way of praying.
Fira: Yes, they pray five times a day, and the time of each prayer depends on the movement of the sun, so they know when it’s time.
Damon: No need for a watch then! Where do Muslims go when they have to pray? Do they have a special day for praying?
Fira: Well, like Christians go to church to pray, Muslims have Mosque or Masjid. Sometimes for practical reasons, Muslims pray in a small room that is made especially for praying, called a Musholla or Musala. These can be located anywhere; in a house, at school, at university, or even in the workplace.
Damon: And Muslims consider Friday a special day for praying in Mosques, don’t they? It’s important to learn about religious diversity, so that was some good information.
KEY VOCAB AND PHRASES
Damon: Let’s take a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson. In the dialogue, Mr. Joko replied to Andi with...
Fira: Kamu juga telah menjawab pertanyaan mereka dengan baik.
Damon: Which, again, means “You also answered their questions very well.” Note that he emphasises the word “also” in his compliment.
Fira: That’s right Damon. By emphasizing juga, he implies that Andi not only delivered his presentation very well, but he has also answered all the questions from the Singapore delegation.
Damon: Right! Also, Mr. Joko praises Andi for his great work at the end of the sentence. What did he say that means “well”?
Fira: That would be dengan baik. You’re picking Indonesian up really quickly, Damon! In that sentence, baik is an adverb. And just so you know, baik can also be used as an adjective. For example: Dia orang yang baik...
Damon: ...which means “He is a good person”. Let’s talk a little about the formation of nouns in Indonesian. Can you give me an example of how nouns are formed?
Fira: Sure. Nouns can be derived in many ways, but one of the simplest rules is to add the root of a word to the prefix per- and the suffix -an.
Damon: Ok, let’s change the verb “to ask” to the noun “question”.
Fira: “To ask” is tanya in Indonesian. If we add the the per- and -an, it will become pertanyaan, which can be translated as the noun, “question”.
Damon: That sounds simple enough. Can you give us another example?
Fira: Sure, the word tukar, which means “change” in English, becomes pertukaran, meaning the noun “exchange”.
Damon: So basically, with any Indonesian verb starting with the letter “T”, you can add per and -an, and it will become a noun, right?
Fira: Yes, that’s the key.
Damon: It’s always good to know the pattern! Okay, now onto the grammar.

Lesson focus

Damon: In this lesson, you’ll learn about the conjunction “since” in Indonesian. What’s the rule for this conjunction in Indonesian? Is it the same as in English, Fira?
Fira: Well, the conjunction sejak basically has the same pattern as in English.
Damon: It’s used to connect two clauses and marks the time between the two clauses.
Fira: For example, sejak dia memimpin negeri ini, keadaan menjadi lebih baik.
Damon: “Since he is leading this country, the conditions have gotten better.” So in principle, the conjunction is used in perfect tense.
Fira: Yes, you got it! Now just to let you know, in poems or songs you’ll likely see semenjak rather than sejak. For example, semenjak dia pergi, hidupku merana.
Damon: “Since she left, my life has become miserable.” Oh no, how tragic! How about interrogative forms? Is there any special question word linked with this conjunction?
Fira: We can see that this conjunction is related with time, as it often states the starting point of the event or action. So yes, usually the question word kapan or “when” in English. For example, Sejak kapan dia mulai bisnis ini?
Damon: “Since when did he start this business?”
Fira: The pattern is Sejak kapan, plus the main clause to get the interrogative form.
Damon: Alright! One more example, and I think we’ll get it!
Fira: Ok, you also use this pattern to ask someone: Sejak kapan kamu memakai kacamata?
Damon: “Since when did you start using glasses?” I see. And how about the answer, do we use two clauses as well?
Fira: Good question. We use only one clause, such as sejak 2008 meaning “since 2008”, or sejak kami pindah ke Surabaya meaning “since we moved to Surabaya”. Or you can use the formula sejak, plus a period of time.
Damon: Great! So using the word for “since” is not all that different from the way it’s used in English.
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Outro

Damon: Well listeners, that’s it for this lesson! To reinforce what you’ve learned in this lesson, be sure to check the lesson notes. And you can leave a comment or question on the lesson page.
Fira: Yes, and see you again in our next lesson. Sampai jumpa lagi!
Damon: Thanks for listening, and we’ll see you next time.