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Lesson Transcript

Culture Class: Holidays in Indonesia, Lesson 18 - Indonesian Memorial Day
Hello, and welcome to the Culture Class- Holidays in Indonesia Series at IndonesianPod101.com. In this series, we’re exploring the traditions behind Indonesian holidays and observances. I’m Eric, and you're listening to Season 1, Lesson 18, Indonesian Memorial Day. In Indonesian, it’s called Hari Pahlawan.
Heroes' Day in Indonesia is commemorated each year on November 10. It is held in remembrance of the deaths of 16,000 Indonesian and 2,000 British soldiers in a bloody battle that lasted three weeks in November of 1945 during which the Indonesian fighters resisted the British effort to return Indonesia to the Dutch.
In this lesson, you’ll learn about the traditions involved with commemorating this state holiday.
Now, before we go into more detail, do you know the answer to this question-
Why were British soldiers in Indonesia during this time?
If you don't already know, you’ll find out a bit later. So, keep listening.
Every November 10, each household in Indonesia displays the red and white flag, or bendera, at half-mast. All members of society pray for the spirits of their national heroes, in Indonesian pahlawan, and meditate for sixty seconds in unison at 08.15 local time. The President of Indonesia leads a national visit to the complex of Taman Makam Pahlawan Kalibata, in Jakarta, which is followed by a flower-planting procession. On this day, the President also announces the recipient of the National Hero title at Istana Negara.
In Makassar, in South Sulawesi, the commemoration is held on the deck of KRI Kerapu, a warship of the Indonesian National Army Navy. Seven miles off the LANTAMAL VI floating dock, after the ceremony, or in Indonesian upacara bendera, is completed, a flower bouquet is set to drift on the sea by participants that include the three forces of the Indonesian National Army and the Indonesian National Police.
In Solo, Central Java, Heroes' Day is commemorated in a lively manner. The historic steam train Sepur Kluthuk Jala Dara, travels around Solo city filled with old and young residents alike wearing freedom fighters' uniforms. The avenue Jalan Slamet Riyadi also becomes the center of the celebration as a giant red and white flag measuring 4 by 6 meters is carried through the street. The commemoration, which falls on the same day as car-free day, makes for ease of meditation and performance of the flag ceremony in the middle of the main street of Solo city.
The battle, or pertempuran, of November 10, 1945 was triggered by the accidental death of Brigadier Mallaby, an incident that could have been avoided. However, the British government reacted by sending 24,000 soldiers to occupy Indonesia. The Battle of Surabaya was acknowledged by the British as the hardest fought war after World War II, which saw the loss of two generals, three British war aircraft, and thousands of British soldiers.
Now it's time to answer our quiz question-
Why were the British soldiers in Indonesia during this time?
After losing the war, the Japanese had to leave previously occupied countries, including Indonesia. The British soldiers then came to Indonesia to disarm the Japanese soldiers, to free prisoners of war, to discharge the Japanese, and finally to return power over Indonesia to the Dutch.
So listeners, how did you like this lesson? Did you learn anything interesting?
What is the history of Heroes' Day in your country?
Leave us a comment telling us at IndonesianPod101.com!
And we’ll see you in the next lesson!

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What is the history of Heroes' Day in your country?